Science Program

As with all of our materials, our online science courses were created as a comprehensive package that includes lesson material, assessments, interactive activities, videos, and tools to track student progress. All of our science courses align to the Ontario curriculum and cover every expectation, while putting the content in a Christ-centred worldview.

Course Details

Elementary courses do not require a prerequisite and enrollment is typically based on the age of the student. If you have any questions on what grade best suits your family’s needs, reach out to our guidance department for support.

Aligned Curriculum Document: Science and Technology (2022)

Developed By: Virtual Elementary School and Christian Virtual School

Development Date: September 2023

Required Resources: See below.

Course Outlines

Unit 1: Habitats and Communities

In this unit, students will learn how plants and animals are interdependent and adapt to their particular habitats. They will learn that changes to habitats (whether caused by natural or human means) can affect plants and animals and the relationships between them. They will also start to understand that society relies on plants and animals.

Unit 2: Pulleys and Gears

In this unit, students will learn how pulleys and gears change the speed, direction, motion of, and force exerted on, moving objects. They will learn how pulleys and gears make it possible for a small input force to generate a large output force. They will also start to understand how gears are specialized wheels and axles that are used daily in many machines.

Unit 3: Light and Sound

In this unit, students will learn how light and sound are forms of energy with specific properties. They will learn how sound is created by vibrations and how light is required to see. They will also start to understand how technological innovations involving light and sound have impacts on the environment.

Unit 4: Rocks and Minerals

In this unit, students will learn how rocks and minerals have unique characteristics and properties that are a result of how they were formed. They will learn how the properties of rocks and minerals determine society’s possible uses for them. They will also start to understand how our use of rocks and minerals affects the environment.

Unit 1: Human Organ Systems

In this unit, students will learn about each system’s structure and purpose in the body and they will discover that each system has multiple functions. Students will also learn how to keep their body systems healthy.

Expectations covered:

  • analyse the impact of human activities and technological innovations on human health
  • investigate the structure and function of the major organs of various human body systems
  • demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of human body systems and interactions within and between systems.

Unit 2: Forces Acting on Structures and Mechanisms

In this unit, students will be exploring the forces that act on and within different structures and mechanisms, such as bridges and pulleys. They will identify internal and external forces acting on structures and describe the effects they have on materials. Students will also learn how engineers and architects work to minimize these effects to keep structures strong and ensure the people who use them are safe. Later in this unit, students will look at the impacts that forces from nature have on society and the environment. They will begin to understand the power behind these forces and the impacts they have on the natural and built environments.

Expectations covered:

  • analyse social and environmental impacts of forces acting on structures and mechanisms
  • investigate forces that act on structures and mechanisms
  • identify forces that act on and within structures and mechanisms, and describe the effects of these forces on structures and mechanisms

Unit 3: Properties of and Changes in Matter

In this unit, students will be exploring the concept of matter. They will learn about common states of matter, such as solids, liquids, and gases, and the properties of each. They will also explore changes of state and investigate the difference between physical and chemical changes. By doing this, students will learn about personal safety and the safety of others when performing investigations. Students will also learn about the physical properties, such as strength and absorbency, of various materials, and determine which tasks each material is best suited for. Then, they will expand this knowledge by applying it to the environment. They will examine the environmental impacts associated with the production, use, and disposal of materials.

Expectations covered:

  • evaluate the social and environmental impacts of processes used to make everyday products
  • demonstrate an understanding of the properties of matter and changes in matter
  • demonstrate an understanding of the properties of matter, changes of state, and physical and chemical change

Unit 4: Conservation of Energy and Resources

In this unit, students will look at energy and its various forms. Students will learn about energy transformations and how different devices and systems store energy and then transform it to do work. This will help students understand how energy is never created, destroyed, or lost. Students will then have the opportunity to apply their new learning as they design and build their own devices that transform energy. Students will also explore different renewable and non-renewable sources of energy and analyze how their use of energy and natural resources affects our society and environment. They will be able to identify different ways to reduce energy consumption and propose ways in which individuals can improve energy conservation.

Expectations covered:

  • analyse the immediate and long-term effects of energy and resource use on society and the environment, and evaluate options for conserving energy and resources
  • investigate energy transformation and conservation
  • demonstrate an understanding of the various forms and sources of energy and the ways in which energy can be transformed and conserved

Unit 1: Biodiversity

In this unit, students will explore the many different species found on Earth. They will learn how to identify organisms and how to classify them into different groups. Students will compare organisms based on characteristics like diet, reproduction, and habitat. Then, students will use that knowledge to learn about biodiversity and the relationships that connect all organisms on Earth. Students will understand why biodiversity is important and what they can do to help preserve it. Additionally, students will learn how biodiversity is connected to their everyday life. They will to go out to explore the biodiversity around them. This will lead to a study of local biodiversity issues and possible solutions.

Expectations covered:

  • assess human impacts on biodiversity, and identify ways of preserving biodiversity
  • investigate the characteristics of living things, and classify diverse organisms according to specific characteristics
  • demonstrate an understanding of biodiversity, its contributions to the stability of natural systems, and its benefits to humans

Unit 2: Flight

In this unit, students will be exploring how aircrafts and organisms are able to fly. By learning about the properties of air, students will see how flight is possible. They will discover how different organisms fly, including birds, mammals, insects, and even some plants. They will also learn about the four forces of flight. Then, students will be able to understand how aircraft alter the forces of flight to take off, steer, and land. After understanding the basics, students will have an opportunity to design, build, and test a flying device. Students will then take an economic approach and determine the benefits and costs of flight technology.

Expectations covered:

  • assess the societal and environmental impacts of flying devices that make use of properties of air
  • investigate ways in which flying devices make use of properties of air
  • explain ways in which properties of air can be applied to the principles of flight and flying devices

Unit 3: Electricity and Electrical Devices

In this unit, students will be exploring how electricity works, what it’s used for, and the effects of electricity production. Students will learn about static electricity and its many characteristics. Additionally, they will investigate the different properties of the electricity that powers their devices, known as current electricity. Then, students will discover and design electrical circuits. Students will learn how electrical energy can be transformed to produce light, sound, heat, and movement, and even get to create a device that transforms electrical energy. Next, students will explore the different ways electricity is used and how it’s invention has helped shape society. Students will discover different ways to generate electricity, and the potential negative effects each one can have on the environment. After they have this knowledge, it’ll be up to the student to identify different ways to reduce electricity usage and lower their ecological footprint.

Expectations covered:

  • evaluate the impact of the use of electricity on both the way we live and the environment
  • investigate the characteristics of static and current electricity, and construct simple circuits
  • demonstrate an understanding of the principles of electrical energy and its transformation into and from other forms of energy

Unit 4: Space

In this unit, students will be exploring the solar system and learning about the celestial bodies in it. While learning about these celestial bodies, they will also learn about their movements and how those movements have affects on other celestial bodies. To go even deeper, students will observe the movements by designing and building a device that demonstrates a celestial event seen from Earth. Beyond learning about the parts of the solar system, students will learn about tools and devices used by humans to travel to and survive in space. Many of these important devices have been designed and developed by Canadians. Lastly, students will evaluate the costs and benefits of space exploration.

Expectations covered:

  • asses the impact of space exploration on society and the environment
  • investigate characteristics of the systems of which the earth is a part and the relationship between the earth, the sun, and the moon
  • demonstrate an understanding of components of the systems of which the earth is a part, and explain the phenomena that result from the movement of different bodies in space

Unit 1: Interactions in the Environment

In this unit, students will learn how technology impacts the environment and consider different protection strategies. Students will learn what a balanced ecosystem looks like and explore some factors threatening this balance. Students will also investigate how biotic and abiotic elements interact in an environment. They will explore the function of each component in an ecosystem and examine how it contributes to a system’s overall balance, along with how human activity can threaten this balance. Finally, students will look at food chains and how energy is distributed across the environment.

Expectations covered:
  • assess the impacts of human activities and technologies on the environment, and evaluate ways of controlling these impacts
  • investigate interactions within the environment, and identify factors that affect the balance between different components of an ecosystem
  • demonstrate an understanding of interactions between and among biotic and abiotic elements in the environment

Unit 2: Form and Function

In this unit, students will examine the different types of structures, the forces that act on them, and the design principles that are used to make sure the structure is fit for its purpose. Using this knowledge, students will investigate the way structures are designed and built to perform different functions. Once they have learned the basics of the design of a structure or object, they will learn how the design influences the material choices and overall design methods used in its creation. Finally, students will investigate how all the characteristics and requirements of a structure are combined in the design to create a final product. The final product needs to be stable, made of the correct materials, able to withstand the forces acting on it, and easy and safe to use. Through several case studies and their own research, students will learn to implement all of these criteria in the creation of a useful object.

Expectations covered:

  • analyze personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that need to be considered in designing and building structures and devices
  • design and construct a variety of structures, and investigate the relationship between the design and function of these structures and the forces that act on them
  • demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between structural forms and the forces that act on and within them

Unit 3: Pure Substances and Mixtures

In this unit, students will explore matter, from a microscopic perspective to a more large-scale one. To begin, students will be introduced to the microscopic perspective as they learn about the particle theory of matter and the properties all particles of matter have. Using the ideas and concepts from the particle theory of matter, they will have the tools needed to classify matter into categories such as pure substances and mixtures. Students will investigate mixtures in experiments to observe their unique properties, such as solubility, appearance, and rate of dissolution. Solutions, which are a type of mixture, will be described quantitatively and qualitatively as they learn about concentration and saturation. After that, students will explore how it is possible to take apart a mixture using separation techniques that they can do at home. These separation techniques have applications in industry but come with both positive and negative impacts, which will all be explored. Finally, to ensure that the negative impacts to people and the environment are considered, students will assess how society disposes of pure substances and mixtures. This way, students will be more equipped to dispose of materials and objects in their home in an eco-friendly way.

Expectations covered:

  • evaluate the social and environmental impacts of the use and disposal of pure substances and mixtures
  • investigate the properties and applications of pure substances and mixtures
  • demonstrate an understanding of the properties of pure substances and mixtures, and describe these characteristics using the particle theory

Unit 4: Heat in the Environment

In this unit, students will learn how heat is produced and the effect it has on different materials. They will also explore how heat is transferred between substances and throughout the universe. Heat plays a critical role in creating the optimal living conditions we experience on Earth. Students will explore how these conditions are created by the greenhouse effect and identify ways to minimize heat loss while assessing the costs and benefits of related technologies. 

Expectations covered:

  • assess the costs and benefits of technologies that reduce heat loss or heat-related impacts on the environment
  • investigate ways in which heat changes substances, and describe how heat is transferred
  • demonstrate an understanding of heat as a form of energy that is associated with the movement of particles and is essential to many processes within the earth’s systems

Unit 1: Cells

In this unit, students will learn about the characteristics that separate living things from non-living things, including the fact that living things are composed of cells. They will learn about why cells are the basic units of life, how organisms can contain different types of cells, and how they can use a microscope to observe cells. Students will be able to describe processes that occur inside cells and create accurate drawings of cells under a microscope. Later, students will assess the roles of technologies that help people to understand cells. They will also assess the impacts that these technologies have. Through the exploration of cells and cell-related technologies, students will understand how cells can be part of complex organisms and how they can be used for various purposes.

Expectations covered:

  • assess the impact of cell biology on individuals, society, and the environment
  • investigate functions and processes of plant and animal cells
  • demonstrate an understanding of the basic structure and function of plant and animal cells and cell processes

Unit 2: Systems in Action

In this unit, students will explore different types of systems along with their purposes and processes. Students will learn how to determine when work is completed by a system and how to calculate the value of work that is done. When they explore simple machines, they will learn how to calculate their mechanical advantage. Students will also have the opportunity to investigate and build their own system. Once they have a greater understanding of systems, they will explore different factors that cause systems to change. Students will learn how systems produce heat and how to reduce heat to make the systems more efficient. Students will learn how different systems increase productivity and efficiency and why productive and efficient systems are important. They will also learn to assess the impacts systems have on society, the economy, and the environment.

Expectations covered:

  • assess the personal, social, and/or environmental impacts of a system, and evaluate improvements to a system and/or alternative ways of meeting the same needs
  • investigate a working system and the ways in which components of the system contribute to its desired function
  • demonstrate an understanding of different types of systems and the factors that contribute to their safe and efficient operation

Unit 3: Fluids

In this unit, students will learn about liquids and gases, why they have different properties, and how these properties affect their behaviour in different situations. Using this knowledge, students will investigate how fluids are used in real-world applications such as construction and transportation. Once they have learned the basics of fluid mechanics, students will learn how to create a simple hydraulic structure on their own using everyday materials. Finally, students will compare how fluids are controlled and used in biological versus manufactured systems and learn about the social, economic, and environmental impacts of activities that use fluids. Through several investigations, they will learn how the principles of fluid mechanics apply to liquids and gases.

Expectations covered:
  • analyse how the properties of fluids are used in various technologies, and assess the impact of these technologies on society and the environment
  • investigate the properties of fluids
  • demonstrate an understanding of the properties and uses of fluids

Unit 4: Water Systems

Water covers more than 70% of Earth’s surface, and the majority of that water is found in oceans. In this unit, students will learn about where all of the water on Earth comes from and how the water systems play an important role in global ecosystems. As they begin to understand these concepts, they will also gain an understanding of how media portrays water issues to the public and of different technological innovations relating to water that have occurred. Students will also develop an understanding of how glaciers are formed, how global climate change can impact the size and sustainability of glaciers, and the impacts glaciers will have on local and global ecosystems. Students will learn about water systems and be able to identify and explain why they are important and how they function.

Expectations covered:

  • assess the impact of human activities and technologies on the sustainability of water resources
  • investigate factors that affect local water quality
  • demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of the earth’s water systems and the influence of water systems on a specific region

Required Resources

These course are entirely online and do not require nor rely on any textbook. Students will require the following resources, however, to complete all of the activities within the courses:

  • A scanner, smart phone camera, or similar device to digitize handwritten or hand-drawn work
  • A smart phone camera or similar device to take pictures of student work
  • A device to record audio
  • A printer
  • A physical binder, folder, or notebook for offline activities
  • Various household items to complete offline activities